When it is used
Performing a biopsy of testicular tissue is considered necessary in cases of azoospermia, for the purpose of confirming the presence or absence of sperm and also to collect and cryopreserve them (if present). But the most important application of this technique is the use of testicular tissue cryopreservation as a preventive measure for men, boys and teenagers who are about to undergo cancer treatment and face the risk of azoospermia after treatment.
How it is implemented
Usually, tissue sections are harvested from each testis and then dissected into smaller pieces. One tissue section from each testis is sent for histological examination, while the remaining sections are cryopreserved. Tissue sections to be cryopreserved are placed inside cryo-vials with the appropriate cryoprotectants and after a special cryopreservation protocol they are placed in liquid nitrogen at -196°C, where they are stored until they are used for micro-insemination (ICSI).