Sperm Analysis Test (Seminogram)

This test checks sperm quality in order to determine sample volume and sperm concentration, motility and morphology.

The sperm analysis test is a necessary examination in the investigation of a couple’s infertility and the result determines the appropriate treatment course for the couple.

Sample volume and sperm concentration per ml of sample

Normally, the volume of semen per ejaculation is 2,5-5 ml, and the number of sperm per ml must be higher than 20 million.

Sperm motility and morphology

The characteristics of a normal sperm analysis test are the following:

Volume2,5 – 5,0 ccm
pH7,2 - 8,0
Concentration> 20 million / ccm
Motility in the 1st hour> 50% straight moving sperm
MorphologyΙnterpreted by the clinician based on the assessment method
White blood cells

1-3 per field or < 1 million

 Consequently, the sperm analysis test is characterised as follows:

  • Azoospermic, when sperm is completely absent from the semen sample
  • Oligospermic, when the concentration of sperm in the sample is lower than normal levels (<20×10^6/ml)
  • Asthenospermic, when the levels of sperm motility in the sample are less than normal (<50%).
  • Teratospermic, when the normal forms of sperm in the sample are less than normal.

In the case of Non-Obstructive Oligospermia – Azoospermia (NOOA), following an examination by a clinician, the following laboratory testing is recommended:

  1. Peripheral blood karyotype (abnormality rate in NOOA 5%-6%)
  2. Tracing of microdeletions of the azoospermic agent AZF of the Y-MDY chromosome (abnormality rate in NOOA 10%-15%)
  3. Tracing of cystic fibrosis carrier mutations (abnormality rate 43% in congenital atresia of the vas deferens)

Causes of a pathologic sperm analysis test:

  • Viral infections (e.g. Mumps)
  • Genetic disorders/ abnormalities
  • Exposure to radiation, chemotherapy
  • Hormonal imbalances

In these cases, the physician evaluates the results and may request a repeated sperm analysis test immediately or after a period of time, and additional testing may be required, e.g. hormone testing, or the couple may be directed to testicular tissue biopsy, etc.